Geochemistry | Soil, Main Inorganic Components


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An ionic bond can be formed after losing two or more atoms or gaining electrons to form an ion. Ionic bonds occur between metals, missing electrons, and nonmetals, which receive electrons. Converted ions will coalesce and create ionic bonds. Such bonds are stronger than hydrogen bonds, but they are much stronger than bond bonds.

In an ionic bond, atoms are bound by the attraction of opposing ions, and in a bond, atoms are bound by electrons for sharing. In combination, the geometry around each atom is determined by valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR rules), whereas in ionic objects, geometry follows high packing rules.

 Thus, compounds can be classified as ionic or covalent based on atomic geometry. It occurs only if the general energy reaction of the reaction is favorable (bound atoms have lower energy than free ones). A major power change strengthens the bond.

 Pure ionic fusion does not occur with real atoms. All bonds have a minimum interaction value. When a large difference in electronegativity becomes more ionic

. The emergence of two ions (for example [Na] + and [Cl] -) forms an ionic bond. Electron orbital usually does not pass (i.e., Molecular orbital is not formed), because each ion has reached a very low energy state, and the bond is based solely on (preferably) electrostatic interactions between direct and negative ions. Most solid ionic solvents are dissolved in water, though not all. Depending on the size of the ion atoms, there are large enough molecules between the atoms and ions to overcome the attraction between the ions themselves. 

Fine ions are attracted to ion pairs in water molecules and dative covalent bonds may form. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds and negative ions.

Structures of nanomaterials

In ionic bonds, the complete transfer of one or more electrons occurs between the donor and receiver elements. There are a few factors that contribute to the formation of ionic bonds; one of them is the dramatic difference in the electronegativity of atoms, which attracts other atoms to transmit their electrons. 

This chemical interaction of electrons creates a stronger bond between atoms compared to other bonds. For example, in the case of Sodium chloride (NaCl) or Potassium chloride (KCl), the electron is transferred between the donor (Na) and the receiver (Cl).

 As a result. Na + Cl− salt is formed as shown in Fig. 4.2. Large amounts of energy are needed to transfer electrons from sodium to the chlorine atom. After the transfer of electrons, sodium loses 3 electrons and becomes sodium ions (Na +), while the chlorine element gains an electron and becomes chlorine ions (Cl-) [ 8].

In nanotechnology, the pure electrostatic interaction of electrons between ionized atoms such as salt (NaCl) is less interesting. Compared to salts, poly ions and molecular ions are of great interest in this field. Macromolecules have a large number of similar functional groups, so when these macromolecules are ionized then polytonic macromolecules form. 

When polyionic macromolecules interact with small ions charged inversely, many smaller layers are formed as a result. Electrostatic bonds, overhead charges, and electrostatic repulsion are required for the operation of nanoparticles, micelles, and macromolecules in the liquid phase. Furthermore, by controlling higher costs we can build and stabilize nanoheterogeneous systems.


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